مدیریت اجرایی(EMBA) - Economic effects of tourism in the Mazandaran province
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Economic effects of tourism in the Mazandaran province - [ ]
ارسال شده توسط حمید در ساعت 18:53

1 - Introduction

Tourism development, particularly for developing countries with problems like high unemployment, foreign exchange restrictions and economic resources for which a single face is important to (Tayebi et al, 1386) Volume growth rate to the industry average in 2020 AD almost double the average growth estimated according to World Bank estimates the amount of wealth the world 2020 annual 3% will grow while the number of international tourists annually 4/1percentage will grow (Ranjbaran and Zahedi, 1388) According to forecasts Organization World tourism in 2010 over 230 million people visit the Asia Pacific region are drawn. Iran enjoys one of the first of five countries most biodiversity on the planet and the first ten countries of the world with this historical account in the tourism industry must present the annual average is $20 billion revenue (double oil revenues), but does not know that kind of tourism in Iran and now an annual income less than  600 million dollars, even among the 80 countries where no tourist world (KolahiQasem, 1382 )in areas prone to attract international tourists in the Mazandaran province in terms of geographical location and natural tourism sector among the top provinces and is considered important province in terms but due to economic poverty and low income and high unemployment.. . has had numerous problems with regard to the role that tourism can have on the economy this has been considered.

2 - Method

This review as descriptive - analytical instruments that use statistical library and check documents update Province has been done. In this article, research has been conducted in three stages initially explored the issue and considering the potential of Statistics and Tourism attractions, tourism economic effects are studied and finally according to the strategy that they use and Development of these resources has been expressed

3 - The issue discussed

Issue discussed includes the economic effects of tourism in the Mazandaran province and whether tourism can affect the economy of the province to be or not. Regarding the review is as follows: 1 - whether the impact of tourism has economy Mazandaran province?


Region of Mazandaran province of the province in the Iran's north and located with an area of about 23756/4 square kilometers, close to 1 / 46 percent of the total area of the country includes (AtlasGytalogical Iranian Provinces, 1387) as well as divisions country year 1385 Province 16 city, 44 sections, 51 cities and 113 villages have been formed. (Center of statistical Mazandaran province, 1385)


4 - Tourism Attractions in the Mazandaran province

Every phenomenon or motivating factor in one area - the destination to create attractive and lead to different travel destinations tourism from regions people will say the gravitational attraction effect in other words the absolute values addition, tourist interest in the status ease of access is being. Tourist Attractions in three categories: literature tourism cultural, natural and Construction of human to divide each different range and variety of the phenomenon are included. Natural attractions: the natural phenomena of all elements and criteria according to the attractiveness value discussed above, say the natural attractions. Cultural attractions: the elements and dimensions of all cultural phenomena and the critical value attractiveness criteria definitions say cultural attractions. Construction of human attraction: to all elements and artificial phenomena critical value and attractiveness criteria definitions, making people say Attractions (Ebrahimzadeh et al, 1386) the most important features of the natural attractions that are limitations of supply and develop a certain period of time specified capacity utilization and therefore have limited the possibility of increasing capacity utilization only through diversification of consumption patterns is possible. (Ranjbaran and Zahedi, 1388) Natural Attractions include four main categories, each subset that are include: mountains: caves, special forms of geology, mountain peaks, rocks, coastal areas. Water resources: lakes and seas, wetlands and swamps, rivers, waterfalls, hot springs and mineral water. Vegetation: annual plants, forest plants and permanent. Wildlife: birds, animals. Cultural attractions as well as its material are divided into two categories: palaces and mansions, castles, bridges, temples, tombs, old bathrooms, crafts and markets. Non-material: traditional and national celebrations, religious celebrations and rituals, dances, local games. Construction of human attractions include museums, parks artificial, cinemas, shops, factories, festivals and conferences, and the ski resort. . . Be included (Ebrahimzadeh et al, 1386)Forests of Mazandaran gives rise to the world's most valuable forests, forests of Mazandaran area about 929 thousand hectares, about 53 percent of the country's north forests, and about 5percent comprises forests of the country. Despite the Caspian Sea shore with a unique 12 Park Forest, 9 national and wildlife parks, 12 major waterfalls, 10 lakes and hundreds of rivers, mineral water,4 wetlands, 18 summer with excellent weather and more than 170 registered national monument and, as one of Mazandaran The most important parts of tourism has become. (Statistical Yearbook of Mazandaran province, 1385)


5 - Tourism infrastructure in the province

Tourism infrastructure including accommodation and catering spaces, transportation and communication facilities and services are different in the tourism infrastructure and residential areas should be considered transportation facilities from residential center has a variety of forms: the different kinds of hotels, Boarding facilities encampment camps, tents, villas, cottages, and units of apartment can to include( Pourahmad and Tajalli, 1379) in year1385, the number of installations residential terms of degrees from one star to four out of 56 cases in which Total of 1882 rooms and 5227 beds there is also facility of transport and communication in the province that year a total of 9875/6 miles that way of course roads including the main road, minor asphalt, road side sand and other ways of sand masses and long lines rail Province, 98 km and the number of stations is 12 (Statistical Yearbook of Mazandaran province,1385)


6 - Economic aspects Tourism

The tourism industry because the umbrella read a wide range of different economic activities together in the field of customer communications are clear, are together in this industry (Ranjbaran and Zahedi, 1388) positive effects of tourism attractions, especially after the economic species That many countries, especially developing countries has attracted( Ebrahim-Zadeh and colleagues, 1385 )the results show that the causal relationship between tourism and economic growth, a two-way causal relationship between these two variables is a There are long-term equilibrium( Tayebi et al, 1386) so we can say that tourism an important factor in economic a location that can be many advantages in a particular place and have been province include:
w community revenue and fair distribution of income among the population
wdevelopment of rural areas with tourist attractions
winfrastructure development and transport infrastructure areas
wcurrency for the country collected
wprevent irregular migration of people
wcontinuous increase in GDP
wEnvironmental Improvement
whelp to invest in cultural and historical heritage
 of Course between these jobs and increasing incomes for those most important effect of tourism development in a region.


7 - Tourism revenue in the province

World Tourism Organization at the end of the twentieth century AD tourism industry in the first row of business visitors and introduced export earnings figure it exports about 550 billion dollars today in a row three tourism industry is the world's major export( Ranjbaran, Zahedi, 1388) In 2000 the number of 1.7 million people tourists to Iran that the figure in 2006 to number 1.659 million people arrived and also the 2006 income of Iran from entering the tourists totaled 992 million dollars has been and further the average cost per capita tourist approximately $ 500 was . (Ebrahimzadeh colleagues, 1386) in the New Year 89, 11 million tourists, domestic and more than 1000 tourists outside into the province It shows potential and the province in attracting tourists. Is this account powers Tourism in creating revenues of tourism and consequently the revenue authorities in the province as much attention can play an important role in increasing people's income and create employment and unemployment relief to play.


8 - Dimensions tourism employment

The institute predicted Futurism and econometric estimation, "Wharton" around the world every 16 people, one way in tourism employment and the employment rate, the world's largest industry is the backbone of national development is recognized. Tourism Industry Find many economies over the past two decades, tourism development tends to have the industry's goal of job creation has followed the main features of employment in this industry is that a wide range of what the forces of expertise, education and gender it encompasses. (Ranjbaran and Zahedi, 1388) Population province census 1385 2,922,432 cases of cholera average annual growth of 1 / 16 respectively. whole Population Province 49 / 8 percent male 50 / 2 percent female have .53/2 percent in urban areas and 46 / 8 percent rural residents are. Average relative density of population in the province in 1385 over 123 people in square kilometers, while the mean density in the whole country about 43 km square. Population Province 58/93 percent in the 15-64 year was. Considering the particular situation of the young province and the province's population must be thinking to solve unemployment problem to create new jobs Monitoring in the province between tourism one of the key ways to get rid of unemployment in the province. In terms of job creation, according published by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) per bed residential center approximately 4 to 5 jobs are created (Madhoshi and Naserpour, 1382) as well as tourist inflow every 4 to 10 jobs will be created. Meanwhile, according to the International Labor Organization, for every direct job opportunities in the tourism industry is caused by one and a half other jobs in businesses such as affiliate Taxi, and... In land destinations will be provided. (Ranjbaran and Zahedi, 1388), but figures show unemployment in the province is working on this particular section has not been well established because the majority of residential installations and facilities in Eastern parts of the province is focused to a special programming features to be distributed in the whole province to be form time jobs for them and the central focus individual in prevent indiscriminate.


9 - Conclusion

Confirmed the initial default, in terms of tourism mazandaran province with appropriate powers of natural, cultural and construction human activity so far has made effective for them to become more active has been done. Other causes of underdevelopment of the tourism industry in the province can be considered include the contraction include: lack of residential facilities for the reception of domestic and foreign tourists, shortage of skilled manpower in the tourism sector, the lack of marketing and information, lack of capital investment, lack of development funds and lack of advanced security systems can also be named through the cases, causing activation of the tourism industry in the province that the summary include: full and faster implementation of programs and strategies in the proposed comprehensive plan Tourism, more investment in residential facilities, to facilitate the entry and exit of foreign tourists at the border entry, more information on national and provincial networks, improving facilities in the cities, creating facilities between road, helping to develop travel and tourism, exhibitions and conferences and festivals, commissioning and development in the province of Tours, a type of subsidy access discount for government and university centers to introduce the various provinces and reduce taxes for activists in the tourism sector. Meanwhile, make high-income, high loss of life, equitable distribution of income in the whole province, job creation, reducing unemployment and increasing investment in tourism can cause large changes in economic and social problems are the province such as immigration, crime will stop.


10 - Reference

1 - Ebrahimzadeh, Issa et al, (1386), "Tourism Master Plan in Sistan and Baluchistan," the third section of the first phase: Analysis and Conclusion, pp 4-6-68-134-136


2 - Ebrahimzadeh, Issa et al,) 1384), plan tourist attractions and how utilizing it as a regional development pole Sistan forgotten.


3 - Atlas Gytalogical Iranian Provinces, (1387) Compilation Gytalogical Research Unit.


4 - Pourahmad, Ahmad. Tajalli, Mohammed Hosein (1379) role of tourism in economic development powers Kerman Journal of Literature and Human Sciences Faculty of Tehran University, pp 23


5- Ranjbaran, Bahram, Zahedi, Mohammad (fifth edition 1388) recognizing tourism publishing Chahar Bagh, pp 43-47-107 -82-20-146

6 - Statistical Yearbook of the country (1385) Statistical Center of Iran


7 - 1385 Statistical Yearbook of Mazandaran province.


8 - Tayebi, Seyed Komail, Babaki, Rohollah, Jabbari, Amir, (1386), "Relationship between tourism development and economic growth in Iran," Journal of humanities and social sciences, particularly economics, Number Twenty-Six, pp84


9 - Kolahi Qasem, Ahmad, (1382) Dysfunctional, recession and crisis in Iran, Seminar Proceedings of policies, programs, tourism development in the Islamic Republic of Iran, pp 232


10 -Madhoshi, mehrdad, Naserpour, naser, (1382), "Evaluation of barriers to tourism development in Lorestan province," Business Journal, No 28, pp 2